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Contemporary Review of the Middle East Volume 10 Issue 1, March 2023: Articles

The Lack of Circulation of Elites in Lebanon:  Towards Communitocracy and Autocratization

Francisco Salvador Barroso Cortés and Christophe Kairouz


The article examines how the lack of circulation of political elites has contributed to setting up an economic–political system designed to avoid the construction of a political entity and common Lebanese identity for fear of losing their traditional role and privileges on the political scene. Toward this, the article provides a general assessment of the Lebanese consociational democracy to understand the elements and factors hampering this form of political governance. Then it delves into the main socio-political factors that allow the triumph of communitocracy. It shows how the lack of circulation on elites, on the one hand, the consociational system on the other, affect democratization and nation-building processes. It throws light on the misbehavior of the Lebanese elites concerning the challenge that democracy and national building represent.

For the text see: Web Link

pp. 9–30